Until the 1860’s THE MAIN CROP PRODUCED on the island of Sri Lanka, then Ceylon, was coffee. But in 1869, the coffee-rust fungus, Hemileia vastatrix, killed the majority of the coffee plants and estate owners had to diversify into other crops in order to avoid total ruin. The owners of Loolecondera Estate had been interested in tea since the late 1850’s and in 1866, James Taylor, a recently arrived Scot, was selected to be in charge of the first sowing of tea seeds in 1867, on 19 acres of land.
Taylor had acquired some basic knowledge of tea cultivation in North India and made some initial experiments in manufacture, using his bungalow verandah as the factory and rolling the leaf by hand on tables. Firing of the oxidized leaf was carried out on clay stoves over charcoal fires with the leaf on wire trays. His first teas were sold locally and were declared delicious. By 1872, Taylor had a fully equipped factory, and, in 1873, his first quality teas were sold for a very good price at the London auction. Through his dedication and determination, Taylor was largely responsible for the early success of the tea crop in Ceylon. Between 1873 and 1880, production rose from just 23 pounds to 81.3 tons, and by 1890, to 22,899.8 tons.
Most of the Ceylon tea gardens are situated at elevations between 3,000 and 8,000 feet in two areas of the southwestern part of the island, to the east of Colombo and in the Galle district on the southern point. In the hot, steamy plains and foothills, the tea bushes flush every seven or eight days and are picked all year round. The finest teas are gathered from late June to the end of August in eastern districts and from the beginning of February to mid-March in the western parts.
Until 1971, more than 80 percent of the island’s tea estates were owned and managed by British companies. In 1971, the Sri Lankan government introduced a Land Reform Act which gave the state control of the majority of the plantations (which also grow rubber and coconuts for export) leaving about one-third in private hands. Since 1990, a restructuring program has been going on to involve the private sector companies (both Sri Lankan and foreign) as Managing Agents of the state-owned plantations. The long-term aim is for the private managing companies to take on most, if not all, of the financial responsibility and control of the estates, with the government retaining ownership.
Sri Lanka’s fine orthodox teas, considered by many to be among the best teas in the world, are not suitable for tea bags. Products containing 100 percent Ceylon tea are now using the Lion logo, developed by the Ceylon Tea Board, that guarantees the country of origin and protects the image of Sri Lanka’s quality teas.
Sri Lanka’s finest teas are produced mainly from bushes that grow above 4,000 feet. The bushes grow more slowly in the cooler, mistier climate, and are harder to harvest because of the steep angle of the slopes on which they are planted.
There are six main tea-producing areas. Galle, to the south of the island; Ratnapura, about 55 miles east of the capital Colombo; Kandy, the low region near the ancient royal capital; Nuwara Eliya, the highest area that produces the finest teas; Dimbula, west of the central mountains; and Uva, located east of Dimbula.
The teas produced in each region have their own individual characteristics of flavor, aroma, and color. Low-grown teas, produced at 1,500 to 1,800 feet, are of good quality and give good color and strength but lack the distinctive flavor and bright fresh taste of the higher-grown teas and are usually used in blending. Mid-grown teas, grown between 1,800 and 3,500 feet, are rich in flavor and give good color. High-grown teas, from heights of between 3,500 and 7,500 feet, are the very best that Sri Lanka produces, giving a beautiful golden liquor and an intense powerful flavor As well as the wonderful black teas, some estates also produce silver tip white tea that gives a very pale straw-colored liquor and should be drunk without milk All Sri Lanka’s black teas are best drunk with a little milk.
Tea as a brew is a luminous coloured liquid which possesses a pleasing aroma and is a delicious and fragrant beverage taken hot or cold. But what really lies behind this beverage which has managed to retain, and indeed, increase its popularity over millennia?
The tea plant (Camellia sinensis) is a species of tree related to the Camellia. Its flowers are yellow-white which bear small, hard-shelled fruits, similar to a hazelnut. The evergreen leaves are leathery, dark and slightly serrated. Given minimum annual temperatures of 18C, moderate and infrequent frosts, a uniform annual precipitation of 1,600mm and a good balance of sunshine, a tea plant can easily grow to become 100 years old. In fact, wild tea plants are reputed to reach an age of up to 1,700 years.
Thea sinensis (Chinese tea): A shrub-like plant which reaches a maximum height of 3 to 4m and can even survive frosts.
Thea assamica (Assam tea): A substantial tree reaching a height of 15-20m and growing exclusively in the tropics. The constant crossing of these two original plants forms the basis of all the tea cultures in the world today.
The cheapest and most consumed beverage worldwide after water is also one of the most valuable in terms of its chemical composition – approximately 32% of its ingredients pass into the infusion.
These ingredients include Polyphenols as the primary antioxidants present in tea, important amino acids like theanine, as well as fluorides.
Trace elements and minerals: fluoride, potassium, calcium, manganese/Vitamins: niacin, vitamin B1 and B2
“Tea both stimulates and calms”: Tea owes its stimulatory effect to its caffeine (teine) content: It does not act on the circulation via the heart, however, but directly on the brain and central nervous system, as it is bonded to the tannins and is not released until it reaches the intestine. This explains the demonstrable capacity of tea to increase concentration and responsiveness.
In the Island of Sri Lanka, tea is produced in three elevational cultivation areas of High grown, Medium grown and Low grown which has become famous throughout the world. Sri Lanka is the only country within the tea growing nations which manufactures all type of teas which include CTC, Rotorvane, Orthodox and Green Tea.
Tea bushes require regular pruning to prevent flowering and fruit formation. This also makes it easier for the tea pickers to gather the two uppermost leaves and the newest bud (only these are relevant for the tea harvest). Most picking is still done by hand in order to preserve the quality of the harvest. Some countries have developed mechanical picking methods, however, which greatly simplify production processes.